EBV Early Antigen Ab, IgG

Alternate Name: EBVD_EA_D Ab IgG

  | EA(D); EBV-EA Antibodies; Early Antigen-Diffuse

SAL Code:

1556

CPT:

86663

Loinc:

24007-7

Turn Around Time:

1 Day

Setup:

Daily

Units:

U/mL

Department:

Epstein-Barr Virus

Methodology:

Chemiluminescent Immunoassay (CLIA)

Specimen Requirements:

Primary Tube:

SST

Primary Substance:

Serum

Alternate Sample Info:

Red top tube

Temperature

Period

Stable Ambient:

14 Days

Stable Fridge:

14 Days

Stable Frozen:

14 Days

Rejection Criteria:

Gross hemolysis; lipemia; improper labeling

Clinical Info:

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is responsible for infectious mononucleosis (IM). Diagnosis of IM is based upon clinical manifestations which generally include sore throat, fever, lymphadenopathy, and malaise in conjunction with hematological evidence for lymphocytosis and serological evidence for the presence of heterophile antibody and/or EBV antibodies to specific proteins including EBV-EA(D).

Confirmation of an acute diagnosis of EBV IM is generally sought by a positive heterophile antibody test. However, difficulties in diagnosis arise when the heterophile test is negative or when clinical manifestations are atypical. A more targeted IM diagnosis may be reached by identification of antibodies to specific EBV protein antigens which include Early Antigen-Diffuse [EA(D)], Viral Capsid Antigen (VCA) and Nuclear Antigen (EBNA). The presence of VCA IgM antibody usually suffices for diagnosis of IM. However, verification should be sought based on additional clinically relevant information.

EA(D) antibodies show a transient rise during primary (acute) infection in a majority (60-80%) of patients and become undetectable after about six months. Thus, measurement of EA(D) IgG can provide important corroborating evidence of primary infection but must be combined with the results of other markers to provide reliable clinical laboratory diagnosis.



Additional Information:

Serologic testing for EBV infection (including EBV- EA[D]) may be merited because characteristic time-dependent antibody responses occur. Most (> 80%) symptomatic IM patients show near peak antibody levels of VCA IgG and IgM when first examined. VCA IgM antibodies usually disappear in 2-3 months while IgG antibodies persist indefinitely. Most patients transiently develop antibodies to EA(D), but IgG antibodies against Epstein-Barr Nuclear Antigen (EBNA) appear several weeks or months after the onset of disease and persist for years or even life. Because of the complex relationship that exists between the EBV virus/host reaction and clinical manifestations, tracking of EBV antibody patterns may assist in diagnosis of EBV infection. Individual levels of specific antibodies are not necessarily indicative of disease state but can be of diagnostic significance when tracked as an antibody response profile. Antibody response profiles for the different EBV antigens demonstrate a characteristic pattern for silent primary or persistent latent EBV infections, as well as for each of the EBV infectious mononucleosis-associated stages.
As mentioned previously, the appearance of IgG antibodies to EA(D) is generally associated with the primary (acute) stage of EBV infection. For most individuals, these antibodies fade in time and are often undetectable after six months. It is estimated that 60-80% of EBV-mediated IM patients will exhibit EA(D) at some point in the infection course.

Sample Collection:

Collect patient samples using standard phlebotomy techniques. Click here for additional collection instructions.

Test Information:

Components: